This perspective of psychoanalysis was dominant in America for approximately a year span until the s. Meanwhile, in Europe, various theoretical approaches had been developed.
J Consult Clin Psychol. Studied processes and outcomes of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic psychotherapy, both expressive and supportive. Some follow-ups extended over the year life span of the study.
Detailed case histories and life histories were obtained from all 42 Ss. Psychoanalyses achieved more limited outcomes than predicted; psychotherapies often achieved more than predicted.
Supportive mechanisms infiltrated all therapies, psychoanalyses included, and accounted for more of the achieved outcomes including structural changes than anticipated.
An expanded new categorization of supportive therapeutic mechanisms is proposed, along with an elaboration of expressive therapeutic mechanisms.
J Am Psychoanal Assoc. As part of a long-term follow-up study of the outcome of psychoanalysis, we examined the relation between the extent of resolution of the transference at Psychoanalytic and psychosocial theory and the characteristics of the patient-analyst match. For twelve of the seventeen patients interviewed five to ten years after termination of psychoanalysis, the researchers found that the patient-analyst match played a role in the outcome of the analysis.
Illustrations of the influence of the match in cases where the transference was resolved and those where it was not are presented. Studies on the Efficacy of Child Psychoanalysis Author: Fonagy, Peter and Moran, George S. This article summarizes three studies that evaluated the psychoanalytic psychotherapeutic treatment of diabetic children and adolescents with grossly abnormal blood glucose profiles necessitating repeated admissions to hospital.
Study 1 used time series analysis to demonstrate that improvements in control were predicted by unconscious themes emerging in the analytic material. Patients in the treatment group were offered psychoanalytic psychotherapy times per week on the hospital ward.
The intervention was highly effective in improving the diabetic control of the children, and this improvement was maintained at 1-yr follow-up.
Study 3 used single-case experimental design to demonstrate the marked effect of psychotherapeutic help on growth in diabetic children with short stature.
Analyses of the data from the Menninger Psychotherapy Research Project MPRP have consistently indicated little difference in the therapeutic outcome between patients seen in psychoanalysis and those seen in psychotherapy. Reanalysis of the data from the MPRP, utilizing a distinction between two broad configurations of psychopathology Blatt,aBlatt and Shichman,however, indicates that patients whose pathology focuses primarily on disruptions of interpersonal relatedness and who use primarily avoidant defenses anaclitic patientsand patients whose pathology focuses primarily on issues of self-definition, autonomy, and self-worth and who use primarily counteractive defenses introjective patients differ in their responsiveness to psychotherapy and psychoanalysis.
Based on recently developed procedures for systematically evaluating the quality of object representation on the Rorschach, reanalysis of the Menninger data reveals that anaclitic patients have significantly greater positive change in psychotherapy, while introjective patients have significantly greater positive change in psychoanalysis.
These statistically significant patient-by-treatment interactions are discussed in terms of their clinical implications as well as the importance of differentiating among types of patients in studies of therapeutic outcome and of therapeutic process.
Intensive treatment generally led to greater improvements, independently of age and treatment length. Despite methodological limitations, the study identifies predictors of improvement e. A Randomized Controlled Trial Author: Bateman, Anthony and Fonagy, Peter Source: This study compared the effectiveness of psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization with standard psychiatric care for patients with borderline personality disorder.
Thirty-eight patients with borderline personality disorder, diagnosed according to standardized criteria, were allocated either to a partially hospitalized group or to a standard psychiatric care control group in a randomized controlled design.
Treatment, which included individual and group psychoanalytic psychotherapy, was for a maximum of 18 months. Outcome measures included the frequency of suicide attempts and acts of self-harm, the number and duration of inpatient admissions, the use of psychotropic medication, and self-report measures of depression, anxiety, general symptom distress, interpersonal function, and social adjustment.
Data analysis used repeated measures analysis of covariance and nonparametric tests of trend. Patients who were partially hospitalized showed a statistically significant decrease on all measures in contrast to the control group, which showed limited change or deterioration over the same period.
An improvement in depressive symptoms, a decrease in suicidal and self-mutilatory acts, reduced inpatient days, and better social and interpersonal function began at 6 months and continued until the end of treatment at 18 months. Psychoanalytically oriented partial hospitalization is superior to standard psychiatric care for patients with borderline personality disorder.
Replication is needed with larger groups, but these results suggest that partial hospitalization may offer an alternative to inpatient treatment. This paper reports the main findings of a large-scale study of subsidized psychoanalysis and long-term psychotherapy.
More than people in various phases, before, during and after subsidized psychoanalysis or long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy, were followed up for a period of three years with personal interviews, questionnaires and official statistics. Our analyses revealed progressive improvement the longer patients were in treatment—impressively strong among patients in psychoanalysis—on self-rating measures of symptom distress and morale.Summary: Mahler describes a series of stages occurring within the first three years of life aimed at the developmental goal of Separation and Individuation..
Originator: Margaret Mahler (), a Hungarian-born American psychiatrist Keywords: Separation-Individuation, Ego psychology, Developmental stages, Object constancy, Mother-infant interactions. Psychoanalytic theory is the theory of personality organization and the dynamics of personality development that guides psychoanalysis, a clinical method for treating tranceformingnlp.com laid out by Sigmund Freud in the late 19th century, psychoanalytic theory has undergone many refinements since his work.
Psychoanalytic theory came to full prominence in the last third of the twentieth. Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.
Because an infant is utterly dependent, developing trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers. Erikson’s () theory of psychosocial development has eight distinct stages, taking in five stages up to the age of 18 years and three further stages beyond, well into adulthood.
Psychodynamic theory and psychoanalytic theory have quite a bit in common; in fact, psychoanalytic theory is a sub-theory underneath psychodynamic theory. “Psychodynamic” refers to all psychological theories of human functioning and personality and can be traced back to Freud’s original formulation of psychoanalysis.