Cryptic self-fertilization in the Malpighiaceae. An ordinal classification for the families of flowering plants.
Plants have cells as the basic unit, cells are organised into tissues and in turn the tissues are organised into organs. Different organs in a plant show differences in their internal structure.
Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments. Classification of tissues — This tissue is responsible for active cell division which results in Growth in plants. Based on location and origin, Plants have different kinds of meristems. Apical meristem — The meristems which occur at the tips of roots and shoots and produce primary tissues.
Such buds are present in the axils of leaves and are capable of forming a branch or a flower. Intercalary meristem — The meristem which occurs between mature tissues is known as intercalary meristem.
They occur in grasses and regenerate parts removed by the grazing herbivores. Both apical meristems and intercalary meristems are primary meristems because they appear early in life of a plant and contribute to the formation of the primary plant body.
Lateral meristem — The meristem that occurs in the mature regions of roots and shoots of many plants, particularly those that produce woody axis and appear later than primary meristem is called the secondary or lateral meristem. Fascicular vascular cambium, interfascicular cambium and cork-cambium are examples of lateral meristems.
These are responsible for producing the secondary tissues. Permanent Tissues The cells of the permanent tissues do not generallydivide further. Permanent tissues having all cellssimilar in structure and function are called simpletissues.
Permanent tissues having many differenttypes of cells are called complex tissues. Simple Tissues It forms the majorcomponent within organs. The cells of theparenchyma are generally isodiametric. Their walls are thin and madeup of cellulose. They may either be closely packedor have small intercellular spaces.
Theparenchyma performs various functions likephotosynthesis, storage, secretion. Collenchyma — It is present in layers below theepidermis hypodermis in dicotyledonous plants. It is foundeither as a homogeneous layer or in patches.
Itconsists of cells which are much thickened at thecorners due to a deposition of cellulose,hemicellulose and pectin. Collenchymatous cellsmay be oval, spherical or polygonal and oftencontain chloroplasts.
They provide mechanicalsupport to the growing parts of the plant such asyoung stem and petiole of a leaf. Sclerenchyma — It consists of long, narrow cellswith thick and lignified cell walls having a few ornumerous pits. They are usually dead and withoutprotoplasts. It provides mechanical support to organs.
On the basis of variation in form,structure, origin and development, sclerenchymamay be either fibres or sclereids. Fibers— these arethick-walled, elongated and pointed cells,generally occuring in groups, in various parts ofthe plant.
Sclereids — theseare spherical, oval orcylindrical, highly thickened dead cells with very narrow cavities lumen.
These are commonly found in the fruit walls of nuts; pulp of fruits like guava, pear and sapota; seed coats of legumes and leaves of tea.
Complex Tissues Xylem — Xylem functions as a conducting tissue for water and minerals from roots to the stem and leaves. It also provides mechanical strength to the plant parts. It is composed of four different kinds of elements, namely, tracheids, vessels, xylem fibres and xylem parenchyma.
Tracheids — Tracheids are elongated or tube like cells with thick and lignified walls and tapering ends. These are dead and are without protoplasm.
The inner layers of the cell walls have thickenings which vary in form. In flowering plants, tracheids and vessels are the main water transporting elements. Vessels — Vessel is a long cylindrical tube-like structure made up of many cells called vessel members, each with lignified walls and a large central cavity.Anatomy of Flowering Plants: An Introduction to Structure and Development - Kindle edition by Paula J.
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Anatomy of flowering plants 1. SHAHINA AKTHER GRADE 11GULF ASIAN ENGLISH SCHOOL 2. ANATOMY OF FLOWERING PLANTS 3. AnatomyStudy of internal . There are two main types of plant tissues, viz. meristematic tissue and permanent tissue.
MERISTEMATIC TISSUES: The cells in the meristematic tissue have the capability to divide. Meristematic tissue is found in growth regions of plants, e.g.
root tip, shoot tip, buds, etc. Flower, the reproductive portion of any plant in the division Magnoliophyta (Angiospermae), a group commonly called flowering plants or angiosperms.
As popularly used, the term “flower” especially applies when part or all of the reproductive structure is distinctive in colour and form. Thoroughly revised and updated throughout, the book covers all aspects of comparative plant structure and development, arranged in a series of chapters on the stem, root, leaf, flower, seed and fruit.
Biology Chapter 6: Anatomy Of Flowering Plants Notes For Class 11 Download In PDF POINTS TO REMEMBER. Anatomy: Anatomy is the study of internal structure of organisms. Plant anatomy includes organisation and structure of tissues.
Tissue: A group of similar cells alongwith intercellular substance which perform a specific function.