It would be difficult, in that early period of American history, to discover another whose lineage, on either branch of the convergent family tree, was as proudly intellectual, as earnestly God-fearing, as solid and substantial in the things of the world, as that of Aaron Burr. There is no reason to doubt that he found satisfaction on both counts, for he very early occupied a solid niche in the affairs of that theocratic Colony. In Roxbury, where he first settled, he was appointed Overseer of Roads and Bridges; when, seized with restlessness and lured by the reports of broad, fertile acres, he pushed on to Agawam, in the newly established Colony of Connecticut, he was soon its Tax Collector, probably the first. When he finally removed to Fairfield, in the same Colony, he was chosen Town Commissioner and representative in the General Court.
To make this assessment, GPR signal scans were examined for features produced by termite or ant activities and potential sources of food and shelter such as nests, tree roots, and voids tunnels.
The total scanned length of the soil levee was 4, m. The average velocity and effective depth of the radar penetration was 0. Four hundred twenty-seven targets were identified. Tree roots 38voids 31fire ant nestsand metal objects were detected, but no Formosan termite carton nests were identified.
The lack of identified termite nests may be related to drowning events at the time to the flood. Based on the target density TDthe two new floodwall and levee sections that were rebuilt or reinforced after they were destroyed by Hurricane Katrina in were determined to be at low potential risk from termites and ants.
A merging target density MTD method indicated a high potential risk near one of the breached sections still remains. Foraging and nesting activity of Formosan subterranean termites and red imported fire ants may be a contributory factor to the levee failure at the London Avenue Canal.
Coptotermes formosanusSolenopsis invictaforagingnestingintegrated pest management Subterranean termites and many ant species nest in soil, often using tree roots and stumps for food in the case of termites and shelter.
As social insects, both termites and ants can have large populations that number into the millions and will make an extensive underground network of foraging tunnels AdkinsWoodroff and MajerXu et al.
For example, a single Formosan subterranean termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki colony has been shown to have a tunnel system that can extend from to 3, m2 in an urban habitat Su and Scheffrahn In China termites are the major cause of soil levee failures Xu et al.
Adkins found that the red imported fire ant Solenopsis invicta Buren mound and foraging tunnels also may weaken soil levees and cause breaks such as the one which occurred near Basile, LA, in June The nest mound of a red imported fire ant colony can vary from 0.
There are numerous outward radiating foraging tunnels up to 1. Their territory ranges from 12 to m2 depending on colony size Adams Termites and ants represent potential hazards to the levee system.
They are major causes of dangerous incidents such as leakage, seepage, and erosion, which can eventually lead to the breakage and collapse of dams, levees, and floodwalls Adkins ; Xu et al. In AugustHenderson discovered that Formosan subterranean termites were attacking the floodwall seams along the Mississippi River in New Orleans.
The termites were eating the bagasse seams and penetrating the rubber seals in between the cement wall sections. Inafter the floodwalls and levee failures at the London Avenue Canal and 17th Street Canal in New Orleans, surveys for infested seams were conducted.
Seventy percent of the seams of the floodwall on the London Avenue Canal east side showed termite and ant damage Henderson Because of this very high seam infestation rate, we focused our current work on the London Avenue Canal levee.
Our objective was to determine whether factors existed in the levee that encouraged ant and termite activity. To date, most studies on biological impacts to soil levee systems have focused on burrowing by large animals and penetration by plant roots ASDSONiederleithinger et al.
Very little research has been conducted in the United States on how termite and ant activities can compromise soil levees. The ground penetrating radar GPR system is a noninvasive geophysical technique that collects and records information of subsurfaces Conyers It uses a surface antenna to transmit electromagnetic energy pulses in the form of radar waves into the ground.
When the transmitted signal enters into the ground, the differences in dielectric properties between two adjacent materials will cause reflection of some of the radar wave energy back to the surface.
The output signal voltage amplitudes are plotted as different color bands and a subsurface cross section profile is generated Conyers As a rapid, nondestructive, and repeatable exploration tool for constructing an image of structural properties of the shallow subsurface, GPR is widely used by agronomists, archaeologists, criminologists, engineers, environmental specialists, foresters, geologists, geophysicists, hydrologists, land use managers, and soil scientists Finck It has been applied to detect subterranean termite nests, tree roots, and voids under airfield pavements; to estimate root biomass; and to map tortoise tunnels Xu et al.
In this study, we used GPR technology to obtain subsurface information on Formosan subterranean termite and red imported fire ant nests, tree roots, and voids tunnels related to termite and ant potential hazards and risks in the soil levee of the London Avenue Canal in New Orleans, LA.By the end of the study, about 20% of the final dry weight of unprotected bolts consisted of termite‐imported soil.
Wood volume consumed and soil content decreased with distance from the ends of the bolts whereas water content exhibited the opposite pattern. We detected a significant negative relationship between water content and volume. The Culinary Arts are of great import, particularly when international scholarship slanders a civilization by claiming everything was imported.
Here too can a venerable Vamsa demonstrate its culture. Niti should be learnt next, because Dharma without Niti leads to nuisance & naasana. Knowing the difference between bending when you must. A tale of fire and ice is in motion, in which the landscape charted veers between the transient warmth and security of human habitations, huts and tents, lovers’ arms and family embraces, and the blasted reaches of Scandinavia’s extreme latitudes.
There are those who in the realm of science fiction literature wonder if galactic empires are the new "Middle-Earth".But interstellar empires never seem to go out of style, and regardless of their practicality they remain a powerful meme.
The terrorist organization Aum Shinrikyo found inspiration in the galactic empire of Isaac Asimov's Foundation Trilogy. Mytfzsof the origin of fire. 10 In many societies. the blacksmith appears as the culture hero.
Forge andblacksmith. Blacksmiths. human beings who alongside the secret of fire possess the secret of the transformation of metals. are very often sorcerers and magicians: hence they stand apart in society.
Throughout Black Africa. The Secret Fire of the Ancient Alchemists, Ulucak Hoyuk - Excavations Conducted Between and , Altan Cilingiro glu, Zafer Derin, Sex Differences in Political Participation - Processes of Change in Fourteen Nations, Carol A.